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See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Despite extensive literatures on the impact on children of exposure to violence in families, neighborhoods, and peer groups, there has been relatively little effort evaluating their cumulative impact.
There also has been less attention to the effects of exposure to political conflict and violence. We collected data from a representative sample of Palestinian youths three age cohorts: Results highlight the additive effects of exposure to political conflict and violence, suggesting that interventionists should consider the full spectrum of sources of environmental risk for PTS symptoms and aggressive behavior.
Broadly speaking, exposure to violence in the social environment is a serious and significant risk factor for the development of psychopathology in children and adolescents, with studies documenting relations between violence exposure and aggression, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, and academic difficulties.
However, despite longstanding developmental theory underscoring the importance of social influences at multiple ecological levels e.
Yet the scope of this problem is quite broad: Over a decade later, little has changed. Ethnic and political conflicts are raging around the world, often erupting into extreme acts of violence. This has been the case in Israel and Palestine, where since the beginning of the second Intifada in September until the end of Julyat least 5, people have been killed as a consequence of ethnic-political violence United Nations, August 31, In this study, we investigated the relation of exposure to political violence to psychological adjustment in a representative cross-section of Palestinian children ages 8, 11, and Our goal was threefold: First, we examined the relation between encounters with ethnic-political violence and aggressive behavior and post-traumatic stress symptoms.
Second, we considered the unique relation of political violence to adjustment within a broader risk matrix incorporating exposure to school, community, and family violence. Third, we considered whether the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and maladjustment was exacerbated by exposure to violence in other contexts, or alternatively, was moderated by low levels of exposure to violence in other contexts.
We conceptualize ethnic-political violence as comprising exposure to forms of violence sanctioned by different influential political and social bodies based on a history of conflict between ethnic groups. Following Slone et al.
Such studies have shown that exposure to the extreme forms of violence exhibited during such events, and the constant threat of losing loved ones or being killed, are associated contemporaneously and longitudinally with a variety of indicators of maladjustment including post-traumatic stress symptoms, anxiety, and depression.
Ongoing ethnic-political violence provides a context in which children may be exposed to any number of specific violent acts as both witnesses and victims. Children growing up in those contexts may feel as though their safety is constantly jeopardized; their daily routines might consistently be disrupted; and they might live in constant fear regarding the safety of their families and friends.
Not surprisingly, the vast majority of research on the effects of exposure to ethnic-political violence has focused on outcomes such as psychopathology e. In addition, exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence appears to be linked to the development of aggressive behavior.
Specifically, researchers have theorized that emotional desensitization i.
Such reactions might be facilitated by the gradual desensitization to and normalization of violence in the social ecology, particularly in an environment overshadowed by ongoing, extreme ethnic-political conflict and violence. This theorizing applies equally well to the effects of ethno-political violence, community violence, school violence, and family violence.
Cairns and Dawes thus noted the distinct lack of research on subclinical conditions in children from politically violent environments. In the present investigation, we focus on two different outcome measures: We treat these outcomes as continuous variables rather than through dichotomized indicators of psychiatric diagnosis in order to consider a broader range of association between exposure and adjustment.
As the literature base is extensive, only a selection of studies is presented here.Exposure to Conflict and Violence across Contexts: Relations to Adjustment among Palestinian Children. Papers: Each student will submit four essays ( pages) that offer a comprehensive answer to the question.
They should draw upon most of the readings, and ideally outside articles. HIST United States History to Professor Cameron B. Strang Daniel Richter, Facing East from Indian Country: A Native History of Early America (Cambridge, Mass., ).
essay in more detail in class, but the paper should have a clear thesis statement, should analyze. In this book, “Facing East from Indian Country,” Daniel K. Richter attempts to examine the Euro-American conquest of Native Americans from the perspective of Native Americans themselves.
The transatlantic slave trade was the forced transportation of Africans from their homeland to destinations in Europe and the Americas.
During the 15th to 19th century approximately 12 million salves were exchanged for merchandise along Africa's western and central west coast, which became known as the "slave coast".
This essay, Daniel Richter states in Facing East from Indian Country, placed the Native peoples in their rightful place in history: at the center of the American story. Apess's work soon fell into obscurity-not by accident, argues Richter-as a deliberately stereotyped image of the Native peoples emerged in a newly racialized culture.