This is part 4 of an exploration into why some countries are poorer than others. Discrimination Sometimes there are social or cultural factors that hold back poor countries. Discrimination is one of these.
The drafts were presented to the UN General Assembly for discussion inand adopted in It recognises a negative right of a people not to be deprived of its means of subsistence,  and imposes an obligation on those parties still responsible for non-self governing and trust territories colonies to encourage and respect their self-determination.
It also requires the rights be Social and cultural forces "without discrimination of any kind as to race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status".
These include rights to work, under "just and favourable conditions",  with the right to form and join trade unions Articles 6, 7, and 8 ; social securityincluding social insurance Article 9 ; family life, including paid parental leave and the protection of children Article 10 ; an adequate standard of livingincluding adequate foodclothing and housingand the "continuous improvement of living conditions" Article 11 ; health, specifically "the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health" Article 12 ; educationincluding free universal primary education, generally available secondary education and equally accessible higher education.
This should be directed to "the full development of the human personality and the sense of its dignity",  and enable all persons to participate effectively in society Articles 13 and 14 ; participation in cultural life Article Many of these rights include specific actions which must be undertaken to realise them.
Part 4 Articles 16—25 governs reporting and monitoring of the Covenant and the steps taken by the parties to implement it. It also allows the monitoring body — originally the United Nations Economic and Social Council — now the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights — see below — to make general recommendations to the UN General Assembly on appropriate measures to realise the rights Article 21 Part 5 Articles 26—31 governs ratification, entry into force, and amendment of the Covenant.
Principle of progressive realisation[ edit ] Article 2 of the Covenant imposes a duty on all parties to take steps It acknowledges that some of the rights for example, the right to health may be difficult in practice to achieve in a short period of time, and that states may be subject to resource constraints, but requires them to act as best they can within their means.
The principle differs from that of the ICCPR, which obliges parties to "respect and to ensure to all individuals within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction" the rights in that Convention. The requirement to "take steps" imposes a continuing obligation to work towards the realisation of the rights.
The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights also interprets the principle as imposing minimum core obligations to provide, at the least, minimum essential levels of each of the rights.
The enacting of anti-discrimination provisions and the establishment of enforceable rights with judicial remedies within national legal systems are considered to be appropriate means. Some provisions, such as anti-discrimination laws, are already required under other human rights instruments, such as the ICCPR.
The right implies parties must guarantee equal access to employment and protect workers from being unfairly deprived of employment.
They must prevent discrimination in the workplace and ensure access for the disadvantaged. These are in turn defined as fair wages with equal pay for equal worksufficient to provide a decent living for workers and their dependants; safe working conditions ; equal opportunity in the workplace; and sufficient rest and leisure, including limited working hours and regular, paid holidays.
It allows these rights to be restricted for members of the armed forces, police, or government administrators. Several parties have placed reservations on this clause, allowing it to be interpreted in a manner consistent with their constitutions e.
Social security Article 9 of the Covenant recognizes "the right of everyone to social securityincluding social insurance ". Benefits from such a scheme must be adequate, accessible to all, and provided without discrimination.
The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights permits such restrictions, provided they are proportionate and reasonable. Children's rightsFathers' rightsMothers' rightsand Reproductive rights Article 10 of the Covenant recognises the family as "the natural and fundamental group unit of society", and requires parties to accord it "the widest possible protection and assistance".
Finally, parties must take "special measures" to protect children from economic or social exploitation, including setting a minimum age of employment and barring children from dangerous and harmful occupations. Right to foodRight to waterRight to housingand Right to clothing Article 11 recognises the right of everyone to an adequate standard of living.
This includes, but is not limited to, the right to adequate food, clothing, housing, and "the continuous improvement of living conditions".
The right to adequate food, also referred to as the right to foodis interpreted as requiring "the availability of food in a quantity and quality sufficient to satisfy the dietary needs of individuals, free from adverse substances, and acceptable within a given culture".
What is considered "adequate" has only been discussed in specific contexts, such as refugees, the disabled, the elderly, or workers. Right to health Article 12 of the Covenant recognises the right of everyone to "the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health".
These are considered to be "illustrative, non-exhaustive examples", rather than a complete statement of parties' obligations. Right to education Article 13 of the Covenant recognises the right of everyone to free education free for the primary level and "the progressive introduction of free education" for the secondary and higher levels.
This is to be directed towards "the full development of the human personality and the sense of its dignity ",  and enable all persons to participate effectively in society. Education is seen both as a human right and as "an indispensable means of realizing other human rights", and so this is one of the longest and most important articles of the Covenant.
These include the provision of free, universal and compulsory primary education, "generally available and accessible" secondary education in various forms including technical and vocational trainingand equally accessible higher education.
All of these must be available to all without discrimination. Parties must also develop a school system though it may be public, private, or mixedencourage or provide scholarships for disadvantaged groups.
Parties are required to make education free at all levels, either immediately or progressively; "[p]rimary education shall be compulsory and available free to all"; secondary education "shall be made generally available and accessible to all by every appropriate means, and in particular by the progressive introduction of free education "; and "[h]igher education shall be made equally accessible to allon the basis of capacity, by every appropriate means, and in particular by the progressive introduction of free education".
It also recognises the right of parents to "ensure the religious and moral education of their children in conformity with their own convictions".Cultural and social forces 1. CULTURECULTUREAND SOCIALAND SOCIALFORCESFORCES 2.
CULTURE DEFINITIONCULTURE DEFINITIONAntropologyAntropology•Studies human. Stages of Social Development The Cultural Dynamics that Spark Violence, Spread Prosperity, and Shape Globalization Don Edward Beck, Ph.
D. Key Difference – Social vs Cultural Factors Although both Social and Cultural factors are deeply related, there is a clear difference between the two sets.
When paying attention to various social phenomena, one cannot ignore the influence of social and cultural factors that shape, change, and develop the phenomenon.
Definition of cultural forces: The influencing mechanisms which exist within a population that guide business practices and/or purchasing behavior. For example, customs regarding labor in Japan will influence how a company manages. The Gusii of Kenya: Social, Economic, Cultural, Political & Judicial Perspectives provides in-depth topical insights of the Gusii (also known as the Kisii) of Kenya.
The book captures historical aspects of the Gusii and how they ended up occupying their present lands. AMERICAN EDUCATOR | SPRING Being Poor, Black, and American.
The Impact of Political, Economic, and Cultural Forces. By William Julius Wilson.