Religious discrimination is valuing or treating a person or group differently because of what they do or do not believe or because of their feelings towards a given religion. For instance, the indigenous Christian population of the Balkansknown as the "rayah" or the "protected flock", was discriminated against under the Ottoman Kanun—i—Rayah. Local rulers and church officials closed many professions to religious Jews, pushing them into marginal roles considered socially inferior, such as tax and rent collecting and moneylendingoccupations only tolerated as a "necessary evil". In a consultation on the issue, the United States commission on civil rights defined religious discrimination in relation to the civil rights guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Obesity is highly stigmatized in our society. Individuals with excess weight or obesity are vulnerable to negative bias, prejudice and Weight discrimination in many different settings, including the workplace, educational institutions, healthcare facilities and even within interpersonal relationships.
Unfortunately, weight bias remains very socially acceptable in North American culture; it is rarely challenged, and often ignored. As a result, thousands of individuals with obesity are at risk for unfair treatment, and there are few outlets available to provide support or protection.
These attitudes are often manifested by negative stereotypes e. Weight stigma includes verbal teasing e. Many individuals with obesity report being treated with less respect or courtesy than thinner persons and being called names or insults because of their weight.
Thus, weight stigma can emerge in subtle forms, or it can be expressed directly. Discrimination is distinct from stigma and negative attitudes, and specifically refers to unequal, unfair treatment of people because of their weight.
For example, a person with obesity who is qualified for a job but is not hired for the position because of his or her weight may have been the victim of weight discrimination. In each of these cases, the behaviors directed toward an individual with obesity depict inequitable treatment with no justifiable cause, and legal recourse may be an Weight discrimination response in these situations.
Obesity Discrimination on the Rise Despite the increasing prevalence of obesity, it appears that incidences of weight discrimination Weight discrimination only becoming worse.
In our research, we examined trends of weight discrimination throughout a 10 year period from and found that the prevalence increased by 66 percent during this decade, from percent of the general population.
This finding was not a result of increasing obesity rates, but rather specifically demonstrates that more people are experiencing weight discrimination. How common is weight discrimination?
Given the social acceptability of negative attitudes toward individuals with obesity, it may not be surprising to learn that weight discrimination is common in the United States.
In a recent study, we examined the prevalence of multiple forms of discrimination in a nationally representative sample of 2, American adults and found that weight discrimination is common among Americans, with rates relatively close to the prevalence of race and age discrimination. Among women, weight discrimination was even more common than racial discrimination.
Among all adults in the study, weight discrimination was more prevalent than discrimination due to ethnicity, sexual orientation and physical disability. Almost 60 percent of participants in our study who reported weight discrimination experienced at least one occurrence of employment-based discrimination, such as not being hired for a job.
In our study, 10 percent of overweight women reported weight discrimination, 20 percent of women with obesity reported weight discrimination and 45 percent of women with obesity reported weight discrimination.
This finding also tells us that women begin experiencing weight discrimination at lower levels of body weight than men. What legal action can be taken for victims of weight discrimination?
Unfortunately, there are few legal options available for individuals who suffer weight discrimination. Currently, there are no federal laws that exist to prohibit discrimination based on weight. With the exception of one state law Michigan and a few local jurisdictions that address discrimination on the basis of weight or appearance e.
Most cases filed under these categories pertain to weight-based discrimination in employment settings, and only a few cases have been successful. It places an unfair burden for individuals to prove that their obesity is debilitating and disabling in order to obtain fair and equitable treatment in the workplace.
These unresolved issues, in addition to public perceptions that place blame on people with obesity, have led to inconsistent court rulings and often deter individuals with obesity from taking any legal action. Clearly, legislation is badly needed to protect individuals from weight discrimination.
Massachusetts recently introduced legislation House Bill to prohibit weight-based discrimination in employment settings. The hearing was held on March 25thwith no opposition present at the hearing, and all expert testimonies were in favor of the bill.
No decision has yet been made, but if this bill passes, it will be an important step in encouraging other states to follow suit. Reducing weight bias requires major shifts in societal attitudes, and national actions are needed to establish meaningful legislation to ensure that persons with obesity receive the equitable treatment they deserve.
Puhl is responsible for coordinating research and policy efforts aimed at reducing weight bias.
Puhl R, Brownell KD. Bias, discrimination, and obesity. Perceptions of weight discrimination: International Journal of Obesity. Nature, Consequences, and Remedies.Guide to projects and publications funded by the National Human Genome Research Institute that examine privacy, discrimination and legal issues in genetic research.
Also includes links to reports on genetic discrimination in employment and health insurance. Stowell & Friedman, Ltd. is a boutique law firm dedicated to plaintiffs' civil rights litigation, challenging nearly every form of adverse employment action from failure to hire to lower compensation, harassment, denial of promotion and termination.
Battle Workplace Weight Discrimination David Kaufman, Monster Contributing Writer When hit film director Kevin Smith was kicked off a Southwest Airlines flight in after the carrier declared him too fat to fly, it dramatically illustrated the challenges -- and routine humiliations -- .
May 02, · Many forms of discrimination persist in the workplace, but a new study highlights a prejudice that most people wouldn’t even think about: obesity bias.
Stowell & Friedman, Ltd. is a boutique law firm dedicated to plaintiffs' civil rights litigation, challenging nearly every form of adverse employment action from failure to hire to lower compensation, harassment, denial of promotion and termination. Sep 27, · It’s no secret that fat people get a pretty raw deal. Aside from things like diabetes and heart attacks, they have to put up with the rest of us covertly filming them in Walmart and uploading the “hilarious” results to YouTube. But anti-fat discrimination goes way beyond gentle mocking and. What You Need to Know Before Getting Started Weight loss can be achieved either by eating fewer calories or by burning more calories with physical activity, preferably both.
The Council on Size & Weight Discrimination works to change public policies and people’s attitudes concerning body weight. We act as consumer advocates for larger people, especially in the areas of medical treatment, job discrimination, and media images.
Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination: 2nd Edition [Todd D. Nelson] on lausannecongress2018.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This Handbook is a comprehensive and scholarly overview of the latest research on prejudice, stereotyping.